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I have tested v3.2 with various sources over s-video and the image is very clean and noiseless.
The S-Video mode on v3.2 is transparent and will not automatically adjust the comb filtering according to input quality, hence you see noise if it exists in the source.
Previous v3.1 automatically adjusted the comb filtering even on S-Video to clean noisy luma signal, hence you see loss of reolution in v3.1 over noisy s-video signal.
S-Video sources do not use comb filtering because there should not be any interference between luma and chroma,, but if there is interference you will see noise on the luma signal.
The C64 is very noisy so maybe this LumaFix64 Mod doesn’t do a good job cleaning the signal?
As for the difference in gain;
Looks like the Luma signal is very weak and out of spec with your C64 s-video board.
An actual CRT would not adjust the gain automatically like v3.1 was doing, and will look the same as you see with v3.2.
The autogain on the ADV7280 will amplify the input signal till the sync reaches exactly 300mV in amplitude regardless of how strong the luma already is, this might clip the luma signal since its amplitude is completely ignored, hence it is disabled in v3.2.
I also tested Commodore 64 computer on composite video and I noticed same interference what I can see on S-Video.
So you say it is the C64 source that is noisy, should the RetroTink2x fix this very noisy signal?
Please try video composite mode (3 leds lit), this should process composite input exactly like v3.1, aside from disabled automatic gain.
I just tested my PAL consoles over S-Video and I see zero interference with v3.2.